Department of antibiotics

Department of antibiotics (Head – doctor of Medicine L.V. Avdyeyeva) was founded by academician D.K. Zabolotny in 1928 and then was called the Department of Medical Microbiology, in 1938 it was renamed to the Department of Pathogenic Microbes (in 1930 the department was headed by Sc.D., Prof. M.I. Shtucer, from 1931 to 1962 - academician, Professor V.G. Drobotko). From the beginning of 1963 it was renamed to the Department of antibiotics (supervisors: 1963-1978 – Sc.D., prof. B. J. Eisenman; 1978-2002 – academitian of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, doctor of Medicine, prof. V.V. Smirnov; 2003-2006 - Ph. D. of Biol. Sciences V. Prikhodko).

The main focus of the work of the Department was to study the biology of microorganisms and search the ways to combat infectious diseases of humans and animals. Also there were studied biology and variability of pathogenic bacteria, a process of bacteriophagy, developed theoretical bases of findings chemotherapeutic agents. First in the Department were isolated and studied pertussis and brutseloz’s bacteriophages, discovered etiology and developed measures to combat unknown disease that was named stakhibotriotoxicosis.

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In the department was conducted fundamental studies of antibiotics obtained from higher plants, of which were derived novoimanin, Salvini, arenaryn, tsernuol, complexed antibiotic drug tserbiden, meroterpenoid phenol bakuchiol et al. It was studied their chemical structure, the impact on macroorganism, the mechanism of antimicrobial action. Established phenomenon of antimicrobial activity of metabolites of higher plants excited by sunlight.

The employees of the department made a significant contribution to an evolutionary based taxonomy of bacteria, including the genus Pseudomonas. Developed the criteria of authentic genus Pseudomonas, characterized and expanded its species composition, proposed the scheme of its classification and species identification. Also it was created a database of the currently described species of bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas using 113 phenotypic features, discovered a new species P. rathonis.

Based on biology and systematics of Pseudomonas was studied different classes of biologically active substances synthesized by this microbes. Characterized antibiotic activity and physiological role of fenazyn pigments, derivatives of 2-oksyfenazyn and florohlyutsyn, syderofors and bactericins (sepatsiatsyna), bicyclic antibiotics flyuviols and others. Based on P. aureofaciens strain was created a complex drug with insecticidal and fungicidal activity for plant protection - haupsyn. Explored the ability of saprophytic Pseudomonas to form ice, among them were founded strains with high ice formation properties and strains with antifreeze ability.

Co-wokers of the Antibiotic Department obtained antistaphylococcus antibiotic batumin from saprophytic Pseudomonas strains. Also they determined its chemical structure and mechanism of action, increased biosynthetic activity of producer strain. Based on this was developed batumin containing ointment to treat staphylococcus infections and nasal carriage against multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus. Besides diagnostic drug "Diastaf" for express identification of staphylococci was created. Based on developed scheme of phased selection of bacteria from the water, algae and shellfish were isolated and identified by polyphasic taxonomic analysis halophilic bacterium Alteromonas macleodii, A. stellipolaris, Pseudoalteromonas citrea, P. haloplanktis, Shewanella colwelliana, S. affinis, S. baltica, Psychrobacter glacincola. These strains were first discovered in the Black Sea. Among Alteromonas and Shewanella species firstly were found the producers of antimicrobial active substances. Onishchenko, Kiprianova, Lysenko et al described a new species of marine bacteria: Oceanimonas smirnovii and Marinomonas pontica in 2005.

The study of another group of microorganisms such as bacteria of the genus Bacillus has formed the basis of development of probiotics and other preparations with living cultures of aerobic spore-forming bacteria. As a result of fundamental research of the genus Bacillus were improved methods for the differentiation of these microorganisms. Also co-wokers of antibiotic department created a new key for the rapid identification of bacilli by phenotypic characteristics, described a new species of bacilli - B. endophyticus and endophytic ecotype type B. amiloliquefaciens.

In the Department among the strains of bacilli isolated from various environmental sources were detected antagonistic strains of pathogenic and opportunistic microbes, producers of extracellular amino acids, antibiotic substances, enzymes and so on. Besides probiotics bacterin-SL, endosporyn for veterinary, medicals as Biosporin and subalin and fitosporyn for plant industry were created by co-wokers. Explored the mechanisms of action of probiotics, proved their positive effects on the immune system of the macroorganism, and deciphered some antibiotic substances.

Nowadays the main subject for research is a fundamental study of ecological and taxonomic features of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, marine Alteromonas-like genera and exploration of production of biologically active substances, as antibiotics, enzymes, pigments, etc.

Taking into account the experience of the drugs development for plant biosecurity and the presence of a large number of Pseudomonas and Bacillus strains in museum, co-wokers of the department begin to examine the range of exometabolits with fitodefensive and fitostimulative activities (fitohormons, hormone-like compounds, fatty acids, etc.), as well as antibiotic compounds using molecular genetic markers. Besides is investigated the influence of abiotic factors on the biosynthesis of antibiotic compounds, evaluated the effectiveness of metabolic profiles derived from bacteria using different model systems, developed the ways to increase biosynthesis of exometabolits with different physiological orientation to improve the efficiency of associative interactions in micro-plant systems. Also based on metabolic profiles of investigated microorganisms are selected strains for creation of biopreparation.

A new direction, conducted in the department is fundamental research processes of formation and degradation of P. aeruginosa biofilm, and the search for substances that retard the growth of microorganisms in the biofilm.

As a result of explorations in recent years have described a new species of bacteria - Pseudomonas batumici, which includes 4 producers strains of antibiotics batumin with typical strain UCM B-321 and Alteromonas tavrii with typical strain UCM B-11103, which were isolated from Black Sea. It was shown that the phenotypic, chemotaksonomic and genetic characteristics of marine bacteria Alteromonas macleodii depend on the place of their habitat - on the surface or in the depths of the ocean.

It was found that the level and spectrum of synthesis of extracellular phytohormones by free living saprobionts and endophytic strain of bacilli are significantly different, probably due to a various type of relations between microorganisms and host plant.

It is confirmed that the effectiveness of bacillary preparations for crop production depends not only on the level of antagonistic activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens, as well as fitostymulative activity that induced by hormones of Bacillus.

Also in the Department was intended the knowledge of biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa and found substances that can inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa in the biofilm.

Except of fundamental research take place an active work for creation based on Pseudomonas and Bacillus strains biological products for livestock and crop production. Thus, based on probiotic strains B. subtilis, lactitol and lactulose was created symbiotic drug "Batsylakt ™». Besides this was introduced 2 preparations for biological plant protection, including pulse crops from pathogenic fungi and bacteria and composition for utilization of crop residues, developed the basics of biotechnology and obtained melanin-containing drug based on Bacillus.

The development of Antibiotic department, where now are 3 doctors, 8 PhDs and two graduate students put into practice. Over the past few years with Ukrainian and Russian enterprises signed six licensing agreements to produce probiotics and biological plant protective agents.

The department for the last 5 years published more then 60 articles in national editions and 16 articles in foreign journals, obtained 8 utility patents and 1 for the invention, 4 priority certificates to sign for goods and services.

Публикации сотрудников отдела, в которых отражены основные направления работы:

  1. V.V. Klochko, L.B. Zelena, S.I. Voychuk, A.N. Ostapchuk Peculiarities of Аlteromonas macleodii strains reflects their deep/surface habitation rather than geographical distribution // J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. – 2012. – № 58. – P. 129 – 135.
  2. Safronova L.A., Zelena L.B., Klochko V.V., Reva O.N. Does the applicability of Bacillus strains in probiotics rely upon their taxonomy? // Can. J. Microbiol. – 2012. – Vol. 58. – P. 212 – 219.
  3. Kiprianova E.A., Klochko V.V., Zelena L.B., Churkina L.N., Avdeeva L.V. Pseudomonas batumici sp.nov., the antibiotic-producing bacteria isolated from soil of the Caucasus Black Sea coast // Мікробіол. журнал. – 2011. – Т. 73, № 5. – С. 3 – 8.
  4. Онищенко О.М., Киприанова Е.А., Клочко В.В., Войчук С.И., Остапчук А.Н. Новый вид Alteromonas, изолированный из воды Черного моря // Мікробіол. журнал. – 2011. – Т. 73, № 4. – С. 3–8.
  5. Klochko V.V., Ostapchuk A.M., Chugunova K.O., Avdeeva L.V. Determination and identification of Pseudomonas batumici culture medium compounds by LC/MS // Sepsis. – 2011. – Vol. 4. – P. 114.
  6. Rybalchenko N.P., Prykhodko V.A., Nagorna S.S., Volynets N.N., Ostapchuk A.N., Klochko V.V., Rybalchenko T.V., Avdeeva L.V. In vitro antifungal activity of phenylheptatriyne from Bidens cernua L. against yeasts // Fitoterapia. – 2010. – Vol. 81, № 5. – P. 336–338.
  7. Avdeeva L.V., Osadchaya A.I., Kharhota M.A. Compositional ratio of probiotic strain B. subtilis and prebiotics for symbiotic // Microbiology and biotechnology. – 1012. – № 4. – P. 18–24.
  8. Kharhota M.A., Osadchaya A.I., Avdeeva L.V. The growth characteristics of probiotic strains of B. subtilis at deep cultivation / / Microbiology journal – 2011. – № 6. – P. 25–30.
  9. Kharhota M.A., Osadchaya A.I., Avdeeva L.V. Prebiotic properties of lactitol and lactulose // Microbiology journal – 2012. – № 2. – P. 25–30.
  10. Avdeeva L.V., Osadchaya A.I., Kharhota M.A. Properties of cellulases that produced by bacteria of the genus Bacillus // Microbiology and biotechnology. – 1011. – № 1. – P. 69–77.
  11. Dragovoz I.V., Yavorska V.K., Kryuchkova L.O, Gladun A/A. Induction of plant resistance whith use of plant growth regulators of natural origin / In “Bioregulation of Microbial-plant systems” book in Editors G.O.Iutynska, S.P.Ponomarenko: Kiyv, Nichlava . – 2010. – P. 332–351.
  12. Dragovoz I.V., Leonova N.О., Iutynska G.O. Phytohormones synthesis by Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains with different symbiotic effectiveness// Microbiol. jornal. – 2011. – Т. 73, № 4. – P. 29–35.
  13. Dragovoz I.V., Leonova N.О., Lapa S. V. et al. Extracellular phytohormones synthesis by bacteria strains of Bacillus genus isolated from different ecological niches // Microbiol. jornal. – 2013. – Т. 75, № 3. – P. 65–71.
  14. Leonova N.О., Dankevich L.A., Dragovoz I.V. Synthesis of extracellular fitohormones-stymulators by nadl and phytopathogenic for soybean bacteria // Reports of NAS Ukrainian. – 2013. – № 3. – P. 165–171.
  15. Balko О.І., Balko A.B., Avdeeva L.V. Biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa collection strains // Mikrobiologichny zhurnal. - 2013. - 75, № 2. – P. 58-64.
  16. Balko О.І., Balko A.B., Avdeeva L.V. Stages of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation // Ukrain. Food J. – 2013. - 2, № 1. – P. 23-26.
  17. Balko A.B., Avdeeva L.V. Screening of producers of bacteriocin-like substances, active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa // Mikrobiologichny zhurnal. - 2012. - 74, № 2. – P. 8-13.
  18. Balko A.B., Avdeeva L.V. Structural components and peculiarities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm organization // Mikrobiologichny zhurnal. - 2010. - 72, № 4. – P. 28-33.
  19. Balko A.B., Avdeeva L.V. Influence of temperature factor on peculiarities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation // Medicine today and tomorrow.– 2009. - № 3-4. – P. 23-27.
  20. Larisa N. Churkina, Svetlana I. Bidnenko, Guido Lopes dos Santos Santiago, Mario Vaneechoutte, Lilja V. Avdeeva, Olga B. Lutko, Nadya M. Oserjanskaja Application of the antibiotic batumin for accurate and rapid identification of staphylococcal small colony variants // BMC Research Notes – 2012. – N 5. – P. 374 .