Department of Problems of interferon and immunomodulators

Department (head – corresponding member of National Academy of Science of Ukrainem, Sc.D., Professor M.Ya. Spivak) was organized in 1992.

The main areas of work are:
  • Determination of the fundamentals of interferon and immunoregulatory cytokines physiological role in norm and different pathological conditions (infectious and inflammatory diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or both of them, as well as precancerous and neoplastic diseases induced by carcinogenic viruses).
  • Developing of science-based approaches for optimization technologies of obtaining a new high interferonogen and antiviral drugs based on amixin derivatives and analogues and molecular complexes of single-chain RNA in combination with synthetic monomer intercalators.
  • Determination of immunomodulatory properties of new probiotics and prebiotics based on lactic acid bacteria and their derivatives, lectins from bacteria and plants, synthetic muramoyldipeptides etc.
  • Development of new biotechnological foundations of diagnostic test-systems construction for viral and bacterial infections causative agents’ identification on the basis of human and animal viruses’ recombinant proteins.
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First was theoretically grounded, experimentally proved and clinically confirmed a new direction in interferonology – determination of interferon antibacterial efficacy in treatment of bacterial infections (sepsis, pyo-septic processes, salmonellosis, toxic shock, etc.). The concept of interferon system was formulated and its direct and inverse link with the immune and neuroendocrine systems of organism was found. A methodology for determination of interferon status, that allows to define the role and place of interferon system at the population level, was identified.

Studies, conducted in the department over the last 5 years, established the fundamentals of interferon system in cases of precancerous and tumor diseases caused by carcinogenic papillomaviruses, allowed to develop a new direction of interferongenesis focused stimulation based on the original concept of compounds (interferon inducers) directed design; added the information about general morphology and morphogenesis of complex animals and plants viruses, that assigned to one taxon, that is concerned with the fundamental problems of virology understanding – phyto- and zoopathogen rhabdoviruses evolution. First and second generation of interferon drugs and promising interferon inducers were received using modern methods of immunobiotechnology. Individually indications and contraindications for interferon drugs and its inducers clinical use in cases of viral, bacterial diseases and other pathological processes.

The department cooperates with a number of laboratories in USA, Canada, Russia, Israel, Iran, Slovakia and other countries. The department generally prepared 7 ScD and 22 PhD theses, published 11 monographs, 4 practical manuals, 4 guidelines of Ministry of Health of USSR and Ukraine, 2 textbooks, received 84 certificates and patents of USSR, Ukraine and Russia. The technology of α- and γ-interferon drugs obtaining (animaferon, splenoferon, diaferon) was developed. Obtained results were marked by the State Prize of Ukraine in Science and Technology (2005), D.K. Zabolotny National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Prize (2001), I.I. Mechnikov National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Prize (2004), O.O. Bogomolets National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Prize (2010), O. Palladin National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Prize (2011), Silver Medal of I.P. Pavlov (Russia, 2002), the Gold Medal of the World Intellectual Property Organization (Switzerland, 2002), Gold Medal of the Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy of USSR (1985), Diploma of Kiev Mayor (2003) and Diploma of the Supreme Council of Ukraine (2007).

It was defined the fundamentals of interferon system and other immunoregulatory cytokines in immunopathogenesis of papillomavirus and herpes infections. There were proposed the new science-based approaches to improve the therapeutic tactics of papillomavirus and herpes infections complex treatment, which include individualized attitude taking into account the clinical and pathogenetic features and microbial associations character, as well as the use of immunotherapy with interferons or their inducers.

To increase the efficiency of herpes simplex virus infections diagnostics "ELISA test system for semi-quantitative analysis and IgG antibodies avidity to herpes simplex virus type 2 determination" was established. A search for new highly effective drugs for alternative antiherpetic therapy was conducted on the experimental models of HSV infection. Such drugs were polycyclic low molecular weight interferon inducers – amixin analogues and derivatives, indolequinoxalines derivatives.

The innovative developments include the establishment of nanomaterials biological activity (nanocristalline cerium dioxide, nanoparticles of gold and silver) for viral infections and other pathological conditions, in particular, a violation of the reproductive function and cardiovascular system insufficiency. Cardioprotective action of gold biosafe nanoparticles was detected and a method of constructing of biosafe and biocompatible nanoconstruction on the basis of gold nanoparticles and cardiotropic drugs with the purpose to increase the efficiency of their targeted delivery in cases of cardio-vascular pathologies was developed. Received conjugate on the basis of cardiotropic drug Simdax and biosafe gold nanoparticles had more effective cardioprotective action, than Simdax drug in cases of experimental doxorubicin-induced heart failure in rats.